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Sample Applications of gmSL

This section contains samples of gmSL applications.

Migration of VB6 RDO code to ADO.NET

The original request from the user was "Our VB6 code is in the following pretty standard pattern:"


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 Dim SQL As String
 Dim SP As rdoQuery
 Dim Results As rdoResultset

 SQL = "select * from departments where category_id = ?"

 Set SP = MainForm.EnablerRDOCN.CreateQuery("QueryDept", SQL)
 SP.rdoParameters(0).value = CategoryID;
 Set Results = SP.OpenResultset(rdOpenForwardOnly)

 While Not Results.EOF
    DeptID = Results.rdoColumns("department_id").value
    Results.MoveNext
 Wend
 SP.Close
"I would like it to produce code like this, which is roughly standard ADO.NET connected db access:"


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 string SQL = "select * from departments order by department_id";

 DbCommand SP = DatabaseConnection().CreateCommand();
 SP.CommandText = SQL;
 SP.Parameters[0].Value = CategoryID;

 using (DbDataReader Results = SP.ExecuteReader())
 {
     while(Results.Read())
     {
        DeptID = Convert.ToInt32(Results["department_id"]);
     }
 }
"You can see that is a pretty drastic translation. What sort of effort are we talking to implement that? And what sort of technology area within gmStudio would you use?"

An example code was created

An example VB6 code was created that uses the external library "MSRDO20.DLL#Microsoft Remote Data Object 2.0". Some time was spent to make it a real working example using the .NET class "System.Data.SqlClient", that could passed on to show how gmBasic is able to perform these types of code transformations. The two specific VB6 methods to be transformed are as follows.


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Public Sub connectDB()
    Set conn = New rdoConnection
    Dim dbs As String
_      dbs = _
    "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;" _
        & "Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;Driver={SQL Server};" _
        & "DSN='';"
    conn.Connect = dbs
    conn.EstablishConnection
End Sub
Public Sub execQuery()
    Dim SQL As String
    Dim SP As rdoQuery
    Dim Results As rdoResultset
    Dim f As String
    SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < ? and FirstName like ?"
    Set SP = conn.CreateQuery("QueryAcct", SQL)
    SP.rdoParameters(0).Value = "5005"
    SP.rdoParameters(1).Value = "Test%"
    Set Results = SP.OpenResultset(rdOpenForwardOnly)
    While Not Results.EOF
        f = Results.rdoColumns("FirstName").Value
        writeLog f
        f = Results.rdoColumns("eMail").Value
        writeLog f
        Results.MoveNext
    Wend
    SP.Close
End Sub
Following the request supplied by the user as closely as possible, the target translations for these two would be


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public static void connectDB()
{
   conn = new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection();
   string dbs = "";
   dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;";
   conn.ConnectionString = dbs;
   conn.Open();
}
public static void execQuery()
{
   string SQL = "";
   System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand SP = null;
   string f = "";

   SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < @0 and FirstName like @1";
   (SP = conn.CreateCommand()).CommandText = SQL;
   SP.Parameters.Add(new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlParameter("@0", null)).Value = "5005";
   SP.Parameters.Add(new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlParameter("@1", null)).Value = "Test%";
   using (System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader Results = SP.ExecuteReader())
   {
      while (Results.Read())
      {
         f = Results["FirstName"].ToStr();
         writeLog(f);
         f = Results["eMail"].ToStr();
         writeLog(f);
      }
   }
}

The unmigrated translation

Using the reference script for MSRDO20.Dll exactly as produced by the gmBasic IDL translator and the following very simple gmSL based translation script


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<mBasic><gmBasic>
<gmSL>
  Execute.Storage Action:="Create", Identifier:="\gmManual\Samples\RDOtoNet\csh\RDOToNet_std"
  Select.DevEnv = "VS2013"
  Select.Dialect = Dialects.csh
  Select.BuildFile = BuildFileStatus.On
  Select.System = "\gmManual\Samples\FromIdl"
  Select.Target = "\gmManual\Samples\FromIdl"
  Select.DeployLocation = "\Temp"
  Execute.Compile Project:="\gmManual\Samples\RDOtoNet\src\RDOToNET.vbp"
  Execute.Analyse
  Execute.Output Status:="New", Filename:="\gmManual\Samples\RDOtoNet\csh\RDOToNet_std.bnd"
  Execute.Author
  Execute.Storage Action:="Close"
</gmSL>
</gmBasic>
the following unmigrated translation is produced.


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public static void connectDB()
{
   conn = new RDO.rdoConnection();
   string dbs = "";
   dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;" + "Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;Driver={SQL Server};" + "DSN='';";
   conn.Connect = dbs;
   conn.EstablishConnection(null,null,null);
}
public static void execQuery()
{
   string SQL = "";
   RDO.rdoQuery SP = null;
   RDO.rdoResultset Results = null;
   string f = "";
   SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < ? and FirstName like ?";
   SP = conn.CreateQuery("QueryAcct",SQL);
   SP.rdoParameters[0].Value = "5005";
   SP.rdoParameters[1].Value = "Test%";
   Results = SP.OpenResultset(RDO.ResultsetTypeConstants.rdOpenForwardOnly,null,null);
   while (!Results.EOF)
   {
      f = Results.rdoColumns["FirstName"].Value.ToStr();
      writeLog(f);
      f = Results.rdoColumns["eMail"].Value.ToStr();
      writeLog(f);
      Results.MoveNext();
   }
   SP.Close();
}

Adding a few migration names

The first step in any migration is to add migration names, using gmPL, to reflect any simple name changes that need to be done. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the gmPL component refactoring attributes -- in this case migName and migPattern. Doing this takes a lot of noise out of the differences between the migrated and unmigrated translations. In this case, they are as summarized here.


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 <library id="MSRDO20.DLL" name="RDO" migName="System.Data.SqlClient" .. >
 <class id="_rdoConnection" ..>
    <property id="Connect" type="String" status="InOut" migName="ConnectionString" />
    <method id="EstablishConnection" type="Void" migPattern="%1d.Open()\c">
    <method id="CreateQuery" type="rdoQuery" migName="CreateCommand">
...
<class id="rdoPreparedStatement"
   <property id="rdoParameters" type="rdoParameters" status="Out" migName="Parameters" />
   <method id="OpenResultset" type="rdoResultset" migPattern="%1d.ExecuteReader()" >
...
<coclass id="rdoConnection" migName="SqlConnection">
<coclass id="rdoResultset" creatable="off" migName="SqlDataReader">
<coclass id="rdoQuery" migName="SqlCommand">
With these changes in place, the unmigrated translations are now as follows.


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public static void connectDB()
{
   conn = new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection();
   string dbs = "";
   dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;" + "Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;Driver={SQL Server};" + "DSN='';";
   conn.ConnectionString = dbs;
   conn.Open();
}
public static void execQuery()
{
   string SQL = "";
   System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand SP = null;
   System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader Results = null;
   string f = "";
   SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < ? and FirstName like ?";
   SP = conn.CreateCommand("QueryAcct",SQL);
   SP.Parameters[0].Value = "5005";
   SP.Parameters[1].Value = "Test%";
   Results = SP.ExecuteReader();
   while (!Results.EOF)
   {
      f = Results.rdoColumns["FirstName"].Value.ToStr();
      writeLog(f);
      f = Results.rdoColumns["eMail"].Value.ToStr();
      writeLog(f);
      Results.MoveNext();
   }
   SP.Close();
}
The remaining work involves adding a refactoring specification and finally gmSL code.

Starting the transformation process

The first difference between the current translation and the target translation is in the method connectDB.


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Current: dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;" + "Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;Driver={SQL Server};" + "DSN='';";
Target : dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;";
The character string, which consists of a series of "name=value;" pairs has been changed to remove the Driver pair and the DSN pair.


The first question that has to be asked is "How do we determine which character strings need to be changed?". In an editing context, perhaps all strings could be searched for these pairs and they could be universally removed. This would almost certainly work in this case, but in general changes need to be contingent on their use. The string above needs to be changed because in this later statement


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conn.ConnectionString = dbs;
it is being assigned to a connection string. Connection strings in the target environment do not have these two attributes. A search needs to be made of assignments to the ConnectionString property, and the strings used in these assignments need to be edited, if possible and necessary.


Transformation is not a process that works with source code or target code. It works with the intermediate code produced by the compiler. After the compiler has completed and after the analyser has finished the standard migrations built into gmBasic, references in the intermediate code to components in external libraries are scanned looking for those that have user supplied code registered for them. The purpose of that user code is to change that intermediate code so that it performs the target operation as opposed to its original source operation.


Once a statement that requires transformation has been identified, the first step is to examine the intermediate code currently produced for it. This can be seen in an audit report of the vbi file produced by the translation script or can be produced on-the-fly using the Opcode.DumpCode method. The intermediate code for the conectionString assignment statement is as follows.


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 72 |           |           |                      | NEW    | 43 conn.Connect = dbs
 75 |           |           |                      | LEV    | Nest0
 77 |      1.77 |      1.77 | String               | LDA    | Variable:dbs:88066
 82 |      1.77 |           |                      | ARG    | String
 84 |      2.84 |      1.84 | RDO.rdoConnection    | LDA    | Variable:conn:87690
 89 |      3.89 |      1.84 | String               | LLP    | Component:Connect:50673
 94 |      2.84 |      1.84 | String               | MEM    | Child
 96 |           |           |                      | STR    | AssignValue
It can be seen that the external library component receiving the content of the variable dbs is Component:Connect:50673. Looking this component up in the symbol audit shows that it is


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 |    50673 |    39973 | Lib_Property                   | RDO._rdoConnection.Connect
Starting the actual transformation process, then, will involve writing a gmSL method that will be notified of all code references to Lib_Property RDO._rdoConnection.Connect. The purpose of that method will be to locate any strings being assigned to that property and to edit them to remove any unwanted attributes.

Introducing a component transform method

The gmSL transform methods are introduced within library description file Refactor statement sections using the gmSL statement. In this case this is as follows.


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<Refactor id="RDO" event="rdoHandlers" >
   <gmSL NameSpace="rdoHandlers" Class="Transform" Source="msrdo20Transform.gmsl" />
</Refactor>
The namespace for these methods is the event name used in the refactor statement and the class for the methods is Transform. Remember that in real migration projects many different libraries and codes are being migrated; therefore, careful naming conventions are necessary. The actual gmSL code could be embedded within the gmSl statement; however, there are "intellisense" editors available for files that have the gmsl extension, so keeping this code separate makes it easier to author and maintain it.


For now the file msrdo20Transform.gmsl is simply as follows.


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int __rdoConnection_Connect(int subRoot,int iStart,int iRefer)
{
   System.LogMessage("RDO#01: sub<" + Symbol.FullName(subRoot,-1) + "> iStart=" + iStart + " iRefer=" + iRefer);
   return 0;
}
It simply logs a message to the translation log file and returns a zero indicating that no change has been made by the method.


The names of transpose methods are an "underline converted" form of the host relative identifier of the component whose reference code is to be transformed. Underline conversion changes all periods in the identifier to an underscore and changes all underscores in the identifier to double underscores. In this case the component identifier is RDO._rdoConnection.Connect. Making it host relative removes the leading RDO. and doing the underline conversion makes it __rdoConnection_Connect. This conversion is necessary to create unique but well-formed method identifiers. After the gmSL file is compiled, gmBasic scans the refactor host for components that match the underscore converted methods, sets their hasCodeHandler property True, and sets their migTransform member equal to the root of the transform method.


All transform methods have three parameters. The parameter subRoot is the root of the source code component that references the component being transformed. The parameter iStart is a starting code location that marks where the referencing code began. Its exact value will vary by the type of reference. The parameter iRefer is the code location of the actual reference to the transform component. To bring this into focus, the initial version of the transform method merely logs the content of these parameters. Running the translation script with Progress="1" produces the following log.


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Loading reference:[Language.std] \gmIDF\Language.std.xml
Reprocessing file: Transform.cls
Reprocessing file: Transform.cls
Processing file: \gmManual\Samples\RDOtoNet\src\RDOToNET.vbp
Loading reference:[stdole2.tlb] \gmIDF\stdole2.tlb.xml
Loading reference:[MSRDO20.DLL] \gmManual\Samples\FromIdl\MSRDO20.DLL.xml
Reprocessing file: \gmManual\Samples\RDOtoNet\src\modRDOToNET.bas
Reprocessing file: \gmManual\Samples\RDOtoNet\src\modRDOToNET.bas
RDO#01: sub<RDOToNET.connectDB> iStart=77 iRefer=89
Focusing first on the actual message produced by the transform method, it confirms what was seen in the code dump earlier. The method connectDB contains a reference to RDO._rdoConnection.Connect at code offset 89 and that a good starting point is at offset 77 which in this case is the offset of the reference to the variable dbs whose content will eventually be evaluated and modified.


The log more importantly brings out the integration between the gmSL transpose capability and the overall processing of the translation script. Translation, when it becomes migration, is a very complex, iterative process. Things go wrong. Things do not work as expected. The translation produces a log file that describes what happens, and it also produces a vbi file that contains all of the detailed information about how the source code was migrated and what it was migrated into. When things go wrong it is important to have available an exact representation of the logic used to do the migration in the vbi file that actually produced it. Note in lines 05 and 06 above that the transpose class is being compiled in the same manner as the source code. All code associated with it is in the vbi file where it can be audited and examined in precisely the same manner as any other code. The translation produced is identical to the one before the refactor section was added, but the vbi is different. First the transform method itself has been added into the symbol table.


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2 |    85026 |    81920 | ClassFile                      | Transform.cls
3 |    85249 |    85026 | Subprogram                     | rdoHandlers.Transform.__rdoConnection_Connect
4 |    85337 |    85249 | Variable                       | rdoHandlers.Transform.__rdoConnection_Connect.subRoot
4 |    85418 |    85249 | Variable                       | rdoHandlers.Transform.__rdoConnection_Connect.iStart
4 |    85463 |    85249 | Variable                       | rdoHandlers.Transform.__rdoConnection_Connect.iRefer
2 |    85128 |    81920 | Vb_Name.85026                  | rdoHandlers.Transform
The source code for the method can be viewed if the EchoInput Select attribute is turned on.


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Text Associated with Scanned Code:
RecNo | Rai | nRec | Content
----- | --- | ---- | -------
    1 |   0 |   65 |   int __rdoConnection_Connect(int subRoot,int iStart,int iRefer){
    2 |   0 |  110 |   System.LogMessage("RDO#01: sub<" + Symbol.FullName(subRoot,-1) + "> iStart=" + iStart + " iRefer=" + iRefer)
    3 |   0 |   10 |   return 0
    4 |   0 |    3 |   }
An actual code dump of the transpose method can be examined.


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Actual C# Codeblock Associated with __rdoConnection_Connect:
Offset |  Sl.Start |  Ql.Start | Quantity type        | Opcode | Operation support information
------ |  -------- |  -------- | -------------        | ------ | -----------------------------
     0 |           |           |                      | LEV    | Nest0
     2 |       1.2 |       1.2 | String               | LSC    | 12:RDO#01: sub<
     7 |       1.2 |       1.2 | String               | LEV    | Nest1
     9 |       2.9 |       2.9 | Integer              | LDA    | Variable:subRoot:85337
     ...
    59 |       2.9 |           |                      | SCM    | System_LogMessage
    61 |       2.9 |           |                      | LEV    | Nest0
    63 |      3.63 |      1.63 | Integer              | LIC    | 0
    66 |      3.63 |           |                      | ARG    | Integer
    68 |           |           |                      | EXI    | Function
Note that the gmSL, though it has a very different syntax than VB6, uses the identical gmIL operations. Finally, the actual entries for the migrated component have been updated to mark it has having a code handler whose offset is 85249 which is this method.


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Detailed Description of Lib_Property RDO._rdoConnection.ConnectionString with root address 50673:
Property                       | Content
--------                       | -------
Migrate Status                 | Referenced
Migrate Flags                  | HasCodeHandler
Transformation                 | 85249
BinaryType                     | String:8

The RDO._rdoConnection.Connect transform Code

The actual code used to ultimately change the content of the dbs connection string works through references to the RDO._rdoConnection.Connect component. It is as follows. It begins with the same underlined converted method identifier, with the same standard parameters, and then the declarations of the local variables. Reading about, writing about, and understanding code whose purpose is to manage other code can get confusing quickly, so keep in mind that there are two coding levels.


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int __rdoConnection_Connect(int subRoot,int iStart,int iRefer)
{
   tCodeBlock codptr;
   int        nCode;
   int        opcd;
   int        subcd;
   int        icode;
   int        iEnd;
   int        localVar;
   int        iAssign;
   string     connect;
   int        iPos;
   int        semi;
   int        nDelete;
   int        addr;
Though not in this sample, there could certainly be other references to the Connect property that are not assignments from local variables. So the first step is to verify that this is a local variable assignment to the property.


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   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iStart,localVar);
   if(opcd != OPC.LDA) return 0;
   icode = iRefer + sizeof(OPC.LLP);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.MEM) return 0;
   icode = icode + sizeof(OPC.MEM);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.STR) return 0;
Remember that the gmSL itself is stored in the same overall structure as the user code; therefore, the first two calls in almost every transpose method use the Opcode methods GetCode and GetLength that reference the user code and not the running code. Next the method checks that the iStart parameter is a reference to a local variable and that the property reference is an assignment. From the dump the expected code sequence is.


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 89 |      3.89 |      1.84 | String               | LLP    | Component:Connect:50673
 94 |      2.84 |      1.84 | String               | MEM    | Child
 96 |           |           |                      | STR    | AssignValue
Note that the call that checked for the local variable assignment also trapped its root in the localVar. The next step is to look for a preceding assignment to this local variable.


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   iAssign = RefactorCode_FindAssign(localVar,iStart);
   if(iAssign == 0) return 0;
The code for the RefactorCode_FindAssign method is shown below. If it returns a nonzero value, then that value is the code offset of the value being assigned to the variable. The next step is to obtain the actual string value being assigned to the local variable.


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   iEnd = Opcode.FindArgumentEnd(codptr,iAssign,nCode);
   connect = Opcode.GetString(iAssign,iEnd);
   if(!connect) return 0;
The method Opcode.GetString is passed the starting and ending offset of code that may produce a string constant when it is executed. The actual code being passed to GetString is


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 37 |           |           |                      | LEV    | Nest0
 39 |      1.39 |      1.39 | String               | LSC    | 46:UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;
 44 |      2.44 |      2.44 | String               | LSC    | 47:Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;Driver={SQL Server};
 49 |      1.39 |      1.39 | String               | CAT    | String
 51 |      2.51 |      2.51 | String               | LSC    | 7:DSN='';
 56 |      1.39 |      1.39 | String               | CAT    | String
 58 |      1.39 |           |                      | ARG    | String
The method Opcode.GetString literally executes this code, even though it is user code, using the same engine as is used to execute the gmSL code. Since this code is being executed at compile time, it may not be possible to resolve it into a string -- if it contains variable references. If it can resolve it, it returns the string; if not, it returns a null-string. In this case the variable connect contains a resolved connection string which it can edit by removing the attribute-values pairs that are not to be used.


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   iPos = Character.FindFirst(connect,0,"Driver=");
   if(iPos)
   {
      iPos = iPos - 1;
      semi = Character.FindFirst(connect,iPos,";");
      if(semi)
      {
         connect = Character.Remove(connect,iPos,semi);
      }
   }
   iPos = Character.FindFirst(connect,0,"DSN=");
   if(iPos)
   {
      iPos = iPos - 1;
      semi = Character.FindFirst(connect,iPos,";");
      if(semi)
      {
         connect = Character.Remove(connect,iPos,semi);
      }
   }
The final step is to replace the old string expression with the revised string. Note that this replacement may well shift code that precedes the referencing code. The calling method that is scanning for transform references needs to be told that this has happened. A non-zero return value tells the scanner that the method has made a change in the code and that scanning should resume at the indicated code location.


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   nDelete = RefactorCode_ReplaceAssign(iAssign,connect);
   iRefer = iRefer - nDelete;
   return iRefer;
}
Moving now to the method RefactorCode_FindAssign, note that it does not contain an underline converted identifier so it is simply private to this class. Its parameters are the root offset of the variable for which an assignment is sought and the code location that the assignment must precede.


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int RefactorCode_FindAssign(int varRoot,int iEnd)
{
   tCodeBlock codptr;
   int        lastLev0;
   int        icode;
   int        addr;
   int        opcd;
   int        subcd;

   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   lastLev0 = 0;
   for(icode = 0; icode >= 0; icode = Opcode.GetNext(codptr,icode,iEnd))
   {
      opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
      if(opcd == OPC.LEV && subcd == 0) lastLev0 = icode;
      else if(opcd == OPC.LDA && subcd == varRoot)
      {
         opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode+sizeof(OPC.LDA),subcd);
         if(opcd == OPC.STR) return lastLev0;
      }
   }
   return 0;
}
It consists of a simple scan from the front of the user method code for an assignment to the indicated variable. If found it returns the starting offset of the expression that defines the value being assigned.


The method RefactorCode_ReplaceAssign deletes the original code in the expression and then inserts a reference to the replacement string.


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int RefactorCode_ReplaceAssign(int iAssign, string replacement)
{
   tCodeBlock codptr;
   int        nCode;
   int        iEnd;
   int        nDelete;
   int        addr;

   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   iEnd = Opcode.FindArgumentEnd(codptr,iAssign,nCode);
   iAssign = iAssign + sizeof(OPC.LEV);
   nDelete = iEnd - iAssign - sizeof(OPC.LSC) - sizeof(OPC.ARG);
   if(nDelete > 0)
   {
      nCode = Opcode.DeleteCode(iAssign,nCode,nDelete);
      Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   }
   addr = Store.String(replacement);
   Opcode.SetOperation(codptr,iAssign,OPC.LSC,addr);
   return nDelete;
}
When doing code substitution, the most difficult step is deciding how much code should be deleted or inserted. In this case, when nDelete is computed, iEnd contains the location immediately after the ARG operation that closes the expression code and iAssign contains the location immediately after the LEV operation that opens the expression code. Thus, iEnd - iAssign needs to be offset by the size of the ARG operation which is needed in the new expression and by the size of the LSC operation which will load the new string.


Running this new code does now produce the desired change as the following file comparison shows.


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Comparing files rdotran.bnd and RDOTRAN.SAV
***** rdotran.bnd
   dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;";
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
   dbs = "UID=stocks_login;PWD=password;Database=stocks;" + "Server=GMI-CS-01.gmi.local;Driver={SQL Server};" + "DSN='';";
*****

The RDO._rdoConnection.CreateQuery transform Code

The next difference between the unmigrated and migrated code is in execQuery in the string assigned to the variable SQL.


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Current: SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < ? and FirstName like ?";
Target : SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < @0 and FirstName like @1";
As with the previous string change requirement the fact that this string should change is determined from the fact that the variable SQL is used as the second argument to the method RDO._rdoConnection.CreateQuery.


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Set SP = conn.CreateQuery("QueryAcct", SQL)
Though the reference pattern is different and the actual editing is different, the logic of the transform method is about the same as the logic of the RDO._rdoConnection.Connect method. The name of the method is now constructed to refer to CreateQuery, the parameters are the same three. The declaration of the method is followed by the declarations of the local variables.


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int __rdoConnection_CreateQuery(int subRoot,int iStart,int iRefer)
{
   tCodeBlock codptr;
   int        nCode;
   int        opcd;
   int        subcd;
   int        icode;
   int        sqlString;
   int        sqlVar;
   string     query;
   int        iAssign;
   int        index;
   int        iPos;
   int        lPos;
   int        nDelete;
   int        createCommand;
   int        iEnd;
The first step is to make certain that this reference is a valid call to the method whose second argument is a variable reference. The code is a bit long but straightforward.


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   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   icode = iRefer;
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.LLP) return 0;
   icode = icode + sizeof(OPC.LLP);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.MEM) return 0;
   icode = icode + sizeof(OPC.MEM);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.LEV) return 0;
   sqlString = Opcode.FindArgumentEnd(codptr,icode,nCode);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,sqlString,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.LEV) return 0;
   sqlString = sqlString + sizeof(OPC.LEV);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,sqlString,sqlVar);
   if(opcd != OPC.LDA) return 0;
   sqlString = sqlString+sizeof(OPC.LDA);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,sqlString,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.ARG) return 0;
   sqlString = sqlString+sizeof(OPC.ARG);
The highlighted code shows where the root of the SQL variable in sqlVar is determined. The second step is to find the preceding assignment to this variable.


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   iAssign = RefactorCode_FindAssign(sqlVar,iRefer);
   if(iAssign == 0) return 0;
The third step is to obtain the actual string value being assigned to the local variable.


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   iEnd = Opcode.FindArgumentEnd(codptr,iAssign,nCode);
   query = Opcode.GetString(iAssign,iEnd);
   if(!query) return 0;
If there is a constant query string, then the fourth step is to relace the "?"s with @index and if necessary replace it in the code.


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   if(iAssign)
   {
      iPos = 0;
      for(index = 0; index < 10; index = index + 1)
      {
         lPos = Character.FindFirst(query,iPos,"?");
         if(!lPos) break;
         iPos = iPos + lPos - 1;
         query = Character.Remove(query,iPos,1);
         query = Character.Insert(query,iPos,"@" + index);
      }
      if(iPos != 0)
      {
         nDelete = RefactorCode_ReplaceAssign(iAssign,query);
         iRefer = iRefer - nDelete;
         sqlString = sqlString - nDelete;
      }
   }
   return iRefer;
}
Running this code causes the desired change in the translation as the following file comparison shows.


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Comparing files rdotran.bnd and RDOTRAN.SAV
***** rdotran.bnd
  SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < @0 and FirstName like @1";
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
  SQL = "select * from accounts where accountID < ? and FirstName like ?";
*****
In addition to having to change the content of the query string, the actual call to the method needs to be changed into a combined method call followed by a propery assignment. The actual difference is


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Current: SP = conn.CreateCommand("QueryAcct",SQL);
Target : (SP = conn.CreateCommand()).CommandText = SQL;
The easiest way to acheive these types of changes is to invent a new method that reflects the revised method and then to associate with that method the final migPattern. These new methods are placed in a migClass defined within the refactor section. The added declaration is


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<migclass id="DotNet">
   <method id="CreateCommand" type="void" migPattern="(%1d = %2d()).CommandText = %4d\c">
      <argument id="conn" type="Object" status="ByVal" />
      <argument id="Name" type="String" status="ByVal"/>
      <argument id="SqlString" type="Variant" status="ByVal"/>
   </method>
 </migClass>
Note that it must precede the gmSL statement as the gmSL code references it. A new section of code can now be added to the transform method that scans forward in the referencing code, removes the old method calling operations and set command code, and replaces it with a reference to the pattern defined above.


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   iEnd = sqlString;
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iEnd,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.CUF) return 0;
   iEnd = iEnd + sizeof(OPC.CUF);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iEnd,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.REF) return 0;
   iEnd = iEnd + sizeof(OPC.REF);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iEnd,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.ARG) return 0;
   iEnd = iEnd + sizeof(OPC.ARG);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iEnd,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.CMD) return 0;
   iEnd = iEnd + sizeof(OPC.CMD);
   nDelete = iEnd - sqlString - sizeof(OPC.PAT);
   createCommand = Symbol.FindIdentifier("RDO.DotNet.CreateCommand");
   nCode = Opcode.DeleteCode(sqlString,nCode,nDelete);
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   Opcode.SetOperation(codptr,sqlString,OPC.PAT,createCommand);
Note that the statement that gets the root offset of the new method is highlighted. The comparison log shows that the code acheived the desired result.


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***** rdotran.bnd
  (SP = conn.CreateCommand()).CommandText = SQL;
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
  SP = conn.CreateCommand("QueryAcct",SQL);
*****

The RDO.rdoPreparedStatement.rdoParameters transform Code

The next difference between the unmigrated and migrated code is as follows. This particular difference occurs twice.


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Current: SP.Parameters[0].Value = "5005";
Target : SP.Parameters.Add(new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlParameter("@0", null)).Value = "5005";
The compiler processes this by generating a generic COL.Item operation that must be replaced by a pattern string.


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<Method id="Parameters" type="object" migPattern="%1d.Add(new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlParameter(\S@%2d\S, null))" >
   <argument id="index" type="Integer" status="ByVal" />
</Method>
This pattern is again stored in the migClass DotNet. The code for the transform then is simply


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int rdoPreparedStatement_rdoParameters(int subRoot,int icode,int iRefer)
{
   int         nCode;
   tCodeBlock  codptr;
   int         iEnd;
   int         opcd;
   int         subc;
   int         parameters;

   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   iEnd = Opcode.FindArgumentEnd(codptr,iRefer+7,nCode);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iEnd,subc);
   if(opcd != OPC.COL || subc != OPC.COL.Item) return 0;
   parameters = Symbol.FindIdentifier("RDO.DotNet.Parameters");
   nCode = Opcode.ExpandCode(iEnd,nCode,sizeof(OPC.PAT) - sizeof(OPC.COL));
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   Opcode.SetOperation(codptr,iEnd,OPC.PAT,parameters);
   return iRefer;
}
It checks for the needed operation, finds the root of the new pattern variable, replaces the old operation code with the new reference to the pattern and returns the new code reference scan location. As the following change log shows, both instances of the rdoParameters where changed.


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Comparing files rdotran.bnd and RDOTRAN.SAV
***** rdotran.bnd
  SP.Parameters.Add(new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlParameter("@0", null)).Value = "5005";
  SP.Parameters.Add(new System.Data.SqlClient.SqlParameter("@1", null)).Value = "Test%";
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
  SP.Parameters[0].Value = "5005";
  SP.Parameters[1].Value = "Test%";
*****

The RDO.rdoPreparedStatement.OpenResultset transform code

An important difference in the migrated code has to do with the SqlDataReader variable Results. In the unmigrated version, it is declared as a method level local variable and is then opened in the code.


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System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader Results = null;
   ...
Results = SP.ExecuteReader();
In the migrated version, its scope is limited, as it is declared and opened in a using statement.


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using (System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader Results = SP.ExecuteReader())
{
An important note here is that the target form of the OpenResultset has been migrated to ExecuteReader; however, with the symbol table it still has its source name which must be used. Trying to transform something like rdoPreparedStatement_ExecuteReader would not work.


The transform method itself begins in the standard way with the required declaractions.


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int rdoPreparedStatement_OpenResultset(int subRoot,int iStart,int iRefer)
{
   tCodeBlock codptr;
   int        nCode;
   int        opcd;
   int        subcd;
   int        icode;
   int        varRoot;
   tVariable  varInfo;
The first set makes certain that the expected type of reference is present and it obtains the root of the Results variable.


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   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   icode = iRefer;
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.REF) return 0;
   icode = icode + sizeof(OPC.REF);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.ARG) return 0;
   icode = icode + sizeof(OPC.ARG);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.CMD) return 0;
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,iStart,varRoot);
   if(opcd != OPC.LDA) return 0;
The second step is to set the DeadCode property of the variable to True. Doing this blocks the declaration of the variable in the list of local variables.


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   varInfo = Store.DeltaVector(varRoot);
   varInfo.DeadCode = True;
And finally the third step changes the CMD.Set into an IFS.Using operation. This operation requires a type as well as a variable reference. The operation TYV.root displays the type of a root; so it is inserted into the code as well.


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   Opcode.SetOperation(codptr,icode,OPC.IFS,OPC.IFS.Using);
   nCode = Opcode.ExpandCode(icode,nCode,sizeof(OPC.TYV));
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   Opcode.SetOperation(codptr,icode,OPC.TYV,varRoot);
   return iRefer;
}
The file comparison shows that the declaration has been removed as well as the following desired change.


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Comparing files rdotran.bnd and RDOTRAN.SAV
***** rdotran.bnd
  using (System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader Results = SP.ExecuteReader())
  {
     while (!Results.EOF)
      ....
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
  Results = SP.ExecuteReader();
  while (!Results.EOF)
    ..
*****
The using statement enters a new indentation level into the code; therefore, all the statements below it are shifted. In fact the translation log now shows this warning


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AUTHOR WARNING#02: Indentation level not balanced old = 3 current = 4
               in <RDOToNET.execQuery>
The end of the using block must be found as well and entered into the migrated code.

The RDO.rdoPreparedStatement.Close transform code

Within the unmigrated code the Openresultset method has a corresponding Close method. In the migrated approach this method call is replaced by an IFS.EndUsing operation. The transform code is as follows.


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int rdoPreparedStatement_Close(int subRoot,int icode,int iRefer)
{
   int         nCode;
   tCodeBlock  codptr;

   iRefer = Opcode.CommentOut(iRefer,OPC.CMT.Delete);
   iRefer = iRefer + sizeof(OPC.CMT);
   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.ExpandCode(iRefer,nCode,sizeof(OPC.IFS));
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   Opcode.SetOperation(codptr,iRefer,OPC.IFS,OPC.IFS.EndUsing);
   return iRefer;
}
The Opcode.CommentOut method finds the end of the statement containing the Close method reference and replaces it with a CMT.Delete operation which will delete the entire statement from the target code. It returns the code offset of that CMT operation. The transpose method then inserts an IFS.EndUsing operation after the CMT. This achieves the desired result.


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***** rdotran.bnd
  }
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
     SP.Close();
*****

The RDO._rdoResultset.EOF transform code

The next difference is in the while loop that reads the records from the result set.


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Current: while (!Results.EOF)
Target : while (Results.Read())
In the current unmigrated code the while loop checks for an end-of-file while the target code performs the actual read. Using the types of techniques used earlier, the simple approach is to change the migName of the EOF to Read() using gmPL.


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<property id="EOF" type="Boolean" status="Out" migName="Read()"/>
Then the transform method for the property can simply check for the NOT operation and remove it. This is what the actual reference code looks like.


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 266 |     2.266 |     1.261 | Boolean              | LLP    | Component:EOF:59440
 271 |     1.261 |     1.261 | Boolean              | MEM    | Child
 273 |     1.261 |     1.261 | Boolean              | NOT    | Arithmetic
The transpose method then merely checks for the pattern and removes the NOT if present. The code is straight forward.


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int __rdoResultset_EOF(int subRoot,int iStart,int iRefer)
{
   int        nCode;
   tCodeBlock codptr;
   int        opcd;
   int        subcd;
   int        icode;

   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   icode = iRefer + sizeof(OPC.LLP);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.MEM) return 0;
   icode = icode + sizeof(OPC.MEM);
   opcd = Opcode.GetOperation(codptr,icode,subcd);
   if(opcd != OPC.NOT) return 0;
   nCode = Opcode.DeleteCode(icode,nCode,sizeof(OPC.NOT));
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   return iRefer;
}
Checking the change log shows that the combination of the new migName and the removal of the NOT acheived the correct result.


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***** rdotran.bnd
   while (Results.Read())
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
   while (!Results.EOF)
*****
Migrations that combine noncontingent renaming with contingent code modification are referred to as "shallow" transforms. The technology used by gmBasic is derived from the field of transformational grammar. The meaning of sentences is referred to as "deep structure", and the representation of the sentence as uttered is referred to as "surface structure". Rules that mix these two levels are called "shallow" and should generally be avoided. In our sample code, the only reference to the "EOF" property is in that while clause where the renaming to "Read()" is valid. But in other contexts, the transform would fail to apply, but the "EOF" would still be changed "Read()" -- certainly causing bad code.


In places such as this, shallow transforms are fine, but beware of them in larger scale migrations where they can introduce problems. A more complex approach would introduce a DotNet method Read and then do a contingent replacement.

The RDO._rdoColumn.Value and RDO._rdoResultset.rdoColumns transform code

The next difference is in the while loop that reads the records from the result set.


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Current: f = Results.rdoColumns["FirstName"].ToStr();
Target : f = Results["FirstName"].ToStr();
This difference involves the references to two properties rdColumns and to Value both of which can simply be removed. The actual references can be seen in the code audit.


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280 |           |           |                      | LEV    | Nest0
282 |     1.282 |     1.282 | RDO.rdoResultset     | LDA    | Variable:Results:106065
287 |     2.287 |     1.282 | RDO.rdoColumns       | LLP    | Component:rdoColumns:57254
292 |     1.282 |     1.282 | RDO.rdoColumns       | MEM    | Child
294 |     1.282 |     1.282 | RDO.rdoColumns       | LEV    | Nest1
296 |     2.296 |     2.296 | String               | LSC    | 9:FirstName
301 |     2.296 |     1.282 | RDO.rdoColumns       | ARG    | String
303 |     1.282 |     1.282 | RDO.rdoColumn        | COL    | Item
305 |     2.305 |     1.282 | Variant              | LLP    | Component:Value:54311
310 |     1.282 |     1.282 | Variant              | MEM    | Child


Except for the names of the methods they are identical.


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int __rdoColumn_Value(int subRoot,int icode,int iRefer)
{
   int         nCode;
   tCodeBlock  codptr;

   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.DeleteCode(iRefer,nCode,sizeof(OPC.LLP) + sizeof(OPC.MEM));
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   return iRefer;
}

int __rdoResultset_rdoColumns(int subRoot,int icode,int iRefer)
{
   int         nCode;
   tCodeBlock  codptr;

   nCode = Opcode.GetLength();
   codptr = Opcode.GetCode();
   nCode = Opcode.DeleteCode(iRefer,nCode,sizeof(OPC.LLP) + sizeof(OPC.MEM));
   Opcode.SetLength(nCode);
   return iRefer;
}
The change log shows that these changes produced the desired result.


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Comparing files rdotran.bnd and RDOTRAN.SAV
***** rdotran.bnd
  f = Results["FirstName"].ToStr();
  writeLog(f);
  f = Results["eMail"].ToStr();
***** RDOTRAN.SAV
  f = Results.rdoColumns["FirstName"].Value.ToStr();
  writeLog(f);
  f = Results.rdoColumns["eMail"].Value.ToStr();
*****

The RDO._rdoResultset_MoveNext code

The final difference between the two translations is that the MoveNext call is no longer needed. The migrated code already does the read in the while loop. The transform method can simply comment out the unwanted statement.


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int __rdoResultset_MoveNext(int subRoot,int icode,int iRefer)
{
   iRefer = Opcode.CommentOut(iRefer,OPC.CMT.Delete);
   return iRefer;
}
This demonstration migration has now been completed,


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Table of Contents